数据集拥有自己的世界观吗?

数据集拥有自己的世界观吗? <span style="font-size: 15px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify;">伴随深度学习的不断日常化,数据集中的偏见(bias)和公正性(fairness)已经成为一个热门研究方向。

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">偏见在AI领域是一个很棘手的话题:有些偏见是有益的,例如噪声数据可以增加模型的鲁棒性,有些偏见是有害的,例如倾向对有色人种识别错误。

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">而且,当我们得到一个不完美的模型的时候,其中的数据集到底存在什么偏见?这些偏见是如何产生的?

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">谷歌的PAIR (People + AI Research)团队最近发表了一篇博文,用一个很简单有趣的例子讨论了这些问题。

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: center; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img class="rich_pages wxw-img" data-backh="122" data-backw="546" data-ratio="0.22265625" data-src="https://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz_png/07B1RzHXu3cKcrHiay6BGXzCppGGFica48ibsOrPyq9BiaiaNwN54hAHZBJ7sVbhVh4B8EDMr1JuVStG1OicZFvLEn4A/640?wx_fmt=png" data-type="png" data-w="768" _width="677px" src="https://www.robot-china.com/skin/default/image/lazy.gif" class="lazy" original="https://www.robot-china.com/file/upload/202203/10/1056397860616.png" crossorigin="anonymous" data-fail="0" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box; vertical-align: bottom; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important; height: auto !important; visibility: visible !important;" width="768" height="171" alt="" />

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<section data-mpa-template="t" mpa-from-tpl="t" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section data-mpa-template="t" mpa-from-tpl="t" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section powered-by="xiumi.us" mpa-from-tpl="t" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section mpa-from-tpl="t" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section mpa-from-tpl="t" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">1、<span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">有偏见的分类

<section mpa-from-tpl="t" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">假设我们拥有如下所示的不同形状的数据集,它们对应的标签是有无阴影,如下图。

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: center; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img class="rich_pages wxw-img" data-backh="188" data-backw="546" data-ratio="0.34432717678100266" data-src="https://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz_png/07B1RzHXu3cKcrHiay6BGXzCppGGFica48lpicwqvgZQfC5IibbwwZ7Q6fuDuAnJkeuCd9mF3jgsx1cWrVJkVNeL5A/640?wx_fmt=png" data-type="png" data-w="758" _width="677px" src="https://www.robot-china.com/skin/default/image/lazy.gif" class="lazy" original="https://www.robot-china.com/file/upload/202203/10/1056543260616.png" crossorigin="anonymous" data-fail="0" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: bottom; border-width: medium; border-style: none; border-color: initial; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; height: auto !important; visibility: visible !important;" width="758" height="261" alt="" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"> 

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">利用页面上的交互式分类器,可以分类出如下的结果,并得出相应的准确性。

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: center; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img class="rich_pages wxw-img" data-backh="373" data-backw="546" data-ratio="0.683649289099526" data-src="https://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz_png/07B1RzHXu3cKcrHiay6BGXzCppGGFica48ibmPQuWl00LHXtyjL0EKDQ6HvhQTZonlRTZRicDicIaeFU8QcyJib4ptZw/640?wx_fmt=png" data-type="png" data-w="844" _width="677px" src="https://www.robot-china.com/skin/default/image/lazy.gif" class="lazy" original="https://www.robot-china.com/file/upload/202203/10/1057099560616.png" crossorigin="anonymous" data-fail="0" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: bottom; border-width: medium; border-style: none; border-color: initial; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; height: auto !important; visibility: visible !important;" width="800" height="546" alt="" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"> 

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">模型并不完美,为了对结果进行纠正,你可能想知道模型正在犯什么错误,或者,数据存在哪种类型的偏见?

<section data-mpa-template="t" mpa-from-tpl="t" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section data-mpa-template="t" mpa-from-tpl="t" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">

portant; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; clear: both; min-height: 1em;"> 

<section powered-by="xiumi.us" mpa-from-tpl="t" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section mpa-from-tpl="t" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section mpa-from-tpl="t" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">2、<span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">公正性分析

<section mpa-from-tpl="t" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">由于各个图形的主要区别在于形状,一个可能的偏见存在于形状的差别。通过观察你可能认为三个最主要的形状主要是圆、三角形和矩形。为了证实这个假设,你要确信你的模型在面对圆、三角形和矩形的时候模型的表现能力的一样的。接下来我们来做公正性分析(fairness analysis)。

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">首先我们需要对每个的形状进行标注,但是一个问题是,有些形状并不能很肯定地确定是什么形状,这时候有两种策略,一是把这种形状判断为最有可能是圆、三角形和矩形(with their best guess);一种是给出一个选项:上述三种形状都不是(as "other")。之后我们分析模型对于每一类形状的分类准确率。该交互式页面给了两种策略的结果:

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">策略一:寻找最有可能的形状:

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: center; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img class="rich_pages wxw-img" data-backh="395" data-backw="546" data-ratio="0.7232779097387173" data-src="https://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz_png/07B1RzHXu3cKcrHiay6BGXzCppGGFica48mUnN8axISicAFNrklM65rib8jLROCrXRpPicG6ibyaWdglDjMzonARHuQA/640?wx_fmt=png" data-type="png" data-w="842" _width="677px" src="https://www.robot-china.com/skin/default/image/lazy.gif" class="lazy" original="https://www.robot-china.com/file/upload/202203/10/1057243060616.png" crossorigin="anonymous" data-fail="0" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: bottom; border-width: medium; border-style: none; border-color: initial; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; height: auto !important; visibility: visible !important;" width="800" height="578" alt="" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"> 

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">第一种策略表明分类器对于矩形分类的结果最好,圆次之,三角形最差。不过这可以表明模型对三角形存在偏见吗?我们在页面上切换第二种策略。

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">策略二:上述都不是:

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: center; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img class="rich_pages wxw-img" data-backh="394" data-backw="546" data-ratio="0.7220902612826603" data-src="https://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz_png/07B1RzHXu3cKcrHiay6BGXzCppGGFica48wINq9gA0yZY3yLcThK5PUyeSmniaVlYDYGJMx5fGZiafckiclvjjaGZJw/640?wx_fmt=png" data-type="png" data-w="842" _width="677px" src="https://www.robot-china.com/skin/default/image/lazy.gif" class="lazy" original="https://www.robot-china.com/file/upload/202203/10/1057371260616.png" crossorigin="anonymous" data-fail="0" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: bottom; border-width: medium; border-style: none; border-color: initial; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; height: auto !important; visibility: visible !important;" width="800" height="577" alt="" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"> 

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">结果发生了变化!第二种策略则表明分类器对于三角形和矩形分类结果都最好,圆却最差。我们对于偏见的理解因为我们制定分类的策略不同而不同,换言之,每一种分类方式代表着采取不同的角度看待哪些是重要的分类特征。而决定数据集和最终模型决策的是你——制定策略的人。也就是每个数据集都代表一种“世界观”,其收集背后莫不代表着人的意志。

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">所以,再回过头来想想,还有哪些策略或者规则的指定可能会影响我们的对于公正性的判断?

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;">对,我们当初对于分类的标准是依照形状,比如圆、三角形或者矩形,这也是我们人为定的标准,如果换成”尖的“或者”圆的“呢?或者“小的”或者“大的”呢?下图给出了不同评价标准下,正确和错误分类的个体:

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 15px;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

<section style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img class="rich_pages wxw-img" data-backh="456" data-backw="546" data-ratio="0.8349056603773585" data-src="https://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz_png/07B1RzHXu3cKcrHiay6BGXzCppGGFica48q7lNYFarGRfYFcUsSiaLyMrOfIX64d4wOfiayPAGAZkRQJP5rBc2LZ9A/640?wx_fmt=png" data-type="png" data-w="848" _width="677px" src="https://www.robot-china.com/skin/default/image/lazy.gif" class="lazy" original="https://www.robot-china.com/file/upload/202203/10/1057526660616.png" crossorigin="anonymous" data-fail="0" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: bottom; border-width: medium; border-style: none; border-color: initial; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; height: auto !important; visibility: visible !important;" width="800" height="667" alt="" />

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"> 

inkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-indent: 0px; text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 12px; color: rgb(178, 178, 178);">图注:当类别标准是“尖的”或者“圆的”,以及其它模糊类别是“寻找最有可能的形状”的时候的分类结果

<section style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;" />

<section style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img class="rich_pages wxw-img" data-backh="449" data-backw="546" data-ratio="0.8226190476190476" data-src="https://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz_png/07B1RzHXu3cKcrHiay6BGXzCppGGFica48bzTJ0dF265jB3Slvy6w7aEeDMEzqH27RXwhZKuRH3wsrPAyqdgicVsw/640?wx_fmt=png" data-type="png" data-w="840" _width="677px" src="https://www.robot-china.com/skin/default/image/lazy.gif" class="lazy" original="https://www.robot-china.com/file/upload/202203/10/1058141360616.png" crossorigin="anonymous" data-fail="0" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; outline: 0px; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: bottom; border-width: medium; border-style: none; border-color: initial; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important; height: auto !important; visibility: visible !important;" width="800" height="658" alt="" />

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